Saturday, December 20, 2014

AWS D1.7/D1.7M:2010

AWS D1.7/D1.7M:2010
An American National Standard

Guide for Strengthening and Repairing Existing Structures
Total:54 pages

Abstract
This guide provides information on strengthening and repairing existing structures. Included are sections on weldability,
evaluation of existing welds, testing and sampling, heat straightening, and damage repair.
                                                                            AWS D1.7/D1.7M:2010

Guide for Strengthening and
Repairing Existing Structures

1.  General Provisions

1.1 Scope. This document contains basic information pertinent to the welded strengthening and repair of existing steel
structures. The information contained in this guide is intended for both Engineers and Contractors with the purpose of
providing direction and   guidance to perform weld repairs,  weld strengthening, and other   weld   procedures to   correct
problematic issues with existing structures. This guide contains background information that will be useful to the Engineer
who   is   obligated   under   AWS   D1.1/D1.1M:2008   Clause   8   to   provide   a   comprehensive   plan   to   address   projects   that
involve strengthening and repairing of steel structures. The approach to the strengthening and repairing of these materi-
als is to be developed using the information provided herein.

This guide is intended to apply to the strengthening and repair of existing structures made of the following materials:

    (1)  Steel with a minimum specified yield strength of 100 ksi [690 MPa] or less

    (2)  Cast iron

    (3)  Wrought iron

Strengthening or repairing an existing structure includes modifications to meet new serviceability or load requirements
as well as corrections made to repair conditions unsuitable for future use specified by the Engineer. The Engineer should
prepare a contract for the work including, but not limited to, design, workmanship, inspection, acceptance criteria, and
documentation. Except as modified in this clause, provisions of this guide should apply to the strengthening and repair of
existing structures, including heat straightening of distorted members.

1.2 Limitations. This guide is intended to assist in the evaluation of existing structural elements and the development of
appropriate procedures for repairing those elements. It does not provide exhaustive coverage of any specific topic.

This guide is intended to apply to the strengthening and repair of existing buildings and other structural systems. It is not
intended to apply to:

    (1)  Structures made of steels less than 1/8 in [3 mm] thick

    (2)  Pressure vessels and pressure piping

    (3)  Structures made of materials other than those listed under the scope

    (4)  Seismic upgrades

    (5)  New construction

Whereas this guide is not intended to apply the application outside the scope, the principles contained in this guide may
be applied to other materials and applications. The Engineer is advised to use caution and engineering judgment for appli-
cation outside the scope of this guide.

More importantly, it is critical to state here that this document does not provide detailed specific procedures and direc-
tion to correct any specific strengthening or repair operation regardless of how common or standard the procedure may
be. Instead, information supplied herein as well as that material referenced in Annex A is intended to provide users with
an overall approach to weld modifications as they pertain to: strengthening and repair; technical resources to develop

                                                                     1

Asme b31.8 2012 FREE PDF DOWNLOAD gas transmission and distribution piping systems

FOREWORD The require for any national code for pressure piping grew to become more and more evident from 1915 to 1925. To meet this require, the American Engineering Specifications Committee (later modified to the American Specifications Association, now the American National Requirements Institute) initiated Venture B31 in March 1926 with the request of your American Society of Mechanical Engineers and with that Society as sole sponsor. Right after several many years of do the job by Sectional Committee B31 and its subcommittees, a first Edition was published in 1935 as an American Tentative Regular Code for Pressure Piping. A revision from the authentic tentative normal started in 1937. A number of far more many years of effort had been provided to securing uniformity amid sections, getting rid of divergent necessities and discrepan- cies, keeping the Code abreast of present developments in welding technique, calculating pressure computations, and such as reference to new dimensional and material specifications. In the course of this period, a brand new section additional on refrigeration piping was ready in cooperation using the American Society of Refrigeration Engineers and complemented the American Typical Code for Mechanical Refrigeration. This operate culminated from the 1942 American Normal Code for Pressure Piping. Dietary supplements 1 and 2 in the 1942 Code, which appeared in 1944 and 1947, respectively, introduced new dimensional and material requirements, a fresh formula for pipe wall thickness, and even more comprehensive specifications for instrument and manage piping. Shortly following the 1942 Code was issued, procedures had been established for handling inquires requiring explanation or interpretation of Code prerequisites and for publishing such inquiries and solutions in Mechanical Engineering for that facts of all concerned. By 1948, continuing increases from the severity of services ailments mixed with the develop- ment of new supplies and styles to meet these larger requirements warranted much more substantial alterations while in the Code than could possibly be supplied from supplements alone. The decision was reached through the American Specifications Association and the sponsor to reorganize the sectional committee and its many subcommittees and also to invite the various interested bodies to reaffirm their represen- tatives or to designate new ones. As a result of the broad field involved, between 30 and forty diverse engineering societies, govern- ment bureaus, trade associations, institutes, and related organizations had one particular or far more representa- tives about the sectional committee, plus a few “members at large” to signify general interests. Code actions have been subdivided according to your scope on the many sections. Basic route of Code routines rested using the Standards Committee officers and an executive committee, membership of which consisted principally of Specifications Committee officers and part chairmen. Following its reorganization in 1948, Requirements Committee B31 made an intensive critique of the 1942 Code that resulted in (a) a standard revision and extension of needs to agree with present day practice (b) the revision of references to present dimensional standards and material specifications as well as the addition of references for the new ones (c) the clarification of ambiguous or conflicting demands A revision was presented for letter ballot vote of Specifications Committee B31. Following approval by this entire body, the task was accredited by the sponsor organization and through the American Standards Association. It was finally designated as an American Standard in February 1951, with all the designation B31.1-1951. Standards Committee B31 at its yearly meeting of November 29, 1951, authorized the separate publication of the segment from the Code for Strain Piping addressing gas transmission and distribu- tion piping methods, to get complete with all the applicable parts of Area two, Fuel and Air Piping Systems, Section 6, Fabrication Information, and Part seven, Materials - Their Specs and Identification.

Thursday, December 4, 2014

ASME B 31.4 free pdf download Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquids and Slurries

ANSI/ASME B31.4-2012 PDF FREE download

Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquids and Slurries
 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers / 12-Nov-2012 
 
ISBN: 9780791834329

This Code contains requirements for piping transporting crude oil, natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum products and other liquids between natural gas plants, refineries, and other facilities.

TOTAL PAGES: 144 PAGES

FOR more ASME STANDARDS PDF CODES DOWNLOAD click  ASME STANDARDS PDF

CLICK ASME B31.4-2012 PDF FREE download COMPLETE FREE PDF

ASME B31.3 2012 Edition Process Piping PDF Free Download

ASME B31.3 2012 Edition Process Piping

PDF Free Download

ANSI/ASME B31.3-2012
Process Piping
American Society of Mechanical Engineers / 10-Jan-2013 / 544 pages
ISBN: 9780791834213

Rules for piping typically found in petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants; and related processing plants and terminals.

Click to download ASME B31.3 2012 PDF For Free!

Download More ASME STANDARDS CODES


-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Date of Issuance: January 10, 2013 The subsequent edition of this Code is scheduled for publication in 2014. This Code will become effective six months following the Date of Issuance. ASME difficulties written replies to inquiries regarding interpretations of technical aspects of this Code. Interpretations, Code Scenarios, and errata are published around the ASME World wide web web page beneath the Committee Pages at because they are issued. Interpretations and Code Instances are also included with every edition. Errata to codes and requirements may perhaps be posted around the ASME Internet site beneath the Committee Pages to provide corrections to incorrectly published items, or to accurate typographical or grammatical mistakes in codes and requirements. This kind of errata shall be employed to the date posted. The Committee Pages is often uncovered at There is certainly an alternative available to immediately obtain an e-mail notification when errata are posted to a specific code or normal. This possibility can be observed to the proper Committee Web page just after choosing “Errata” during the “Publication Information” area. ASME is the registered trademark from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. This code or regular was developed beneath procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for American Nationwide Requirements. The Requirements Committee that accepted the code or conventional was balanced to assure that persons from competent and concerned interests have had a chance to participate. The proposed code or conventional was manufactured available for public review and comment that presents an opportunity for added public input from business, academia, regulatory companies, and the public-at-large. ASME won't “approve,” “rate,” or “endorse” any item, building, proprietary device, or activity.

ASME B31.8S-2012

ASME B31.8S-2012

(Revision of ASME B31.8S-2010)

Working Process Integrity of Gas Pipelines

ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31
Supplement to ASME B31.eight

World-wide-web pages:84 Total

ASME B31.8S-2012

Controlling Method INTEGRITY OF Gasoline PIPELINES

This ASME Typical addresses on-shore, gasoline pipeline units produced with ferrous parts, which incorporates pipe, valves, appurtenances linked to pipe, compressor units, metering stations, regulator stations, delivery stations, holders and fabricated assemblies. Its principles, procedures and methods implement to your overall procedure for all pipeline devices.

ASME B31.8S is specially formulated to supply the operator together with the information and facts vital to develop and put into action a extremely successful integrity administration method utilizing verified company techniques and processes. Useful program management can minimize fix and substitute expenses, stay clear of malfunctions, and restrict system downtime.

Significant enhancements to this variation involve updates to the integrity evaluation intervals desk, effectiveness technique section, and non-mandatory appendix A.

Meant for: Fuel pipeline owners/operators; pipeline operation and program maintenance management and engineering departments; federal, level out, and community regulatory bodies; and all groups accountable for fuel pipeline system integrity.

Thursday, November 13, 2014

ASCE 7-10

       ASCE/SEI
       A S C E  S T A N D A R D
       7–10

Minimum Design
Loads for Buildings
and Other Structures

This document uses both the
International System of Units (SI)
and customary units
--------------------------
Download ASCE 7-10

                                                 STANDARDS

In 2003, the Board of Direction approved the revision               ASCE 15-98 Standard Practice for Direct Design of
to the ASCE Rules for Standards Committees to                            Buried Precast Concrete Pipe Using Standard
govern the writing and maintenance of standards                          Installations (SIDD)
developed by the Society. All such standards are                    ASCE 16-95 Standard for Load Resistance Factor
developed by a consensus standards process managed                       Design (LRFD) of Engineered Wood
by the Society’s Codes and Standards Committee                           Construction
(CSC). The consensus process includes balloting by                  ASCE 17-96 Air-Supported Structures
a balanced standards committee made up of Society                   ASCE 18-96 Standard Guidelines for In-Process
members and nonmembers, balloting by the member-                         Oxygen Transfer Testing
ship of the Society as a whole, and balloting by the                ASCE 19-96 Structural Applications of Steel Cables
public. All standards are updated or reaffi rmed by the                   for Buildings
same process at intervals not exceeding fi ve years.                 ASCE 20-96 Standard Guidelines for the Design and
     The following standards have been issued:                           Installation of Pile Foundations
                                                                    ANSI/ASCE/T&DI 21-05 Automated People Mover
ANSI/ASCE 1-82 N-725 Guideline for Design and                            Standards—Part 1
     Analysis of Nuclear Safety Related Earth                       ANSI/ASCE/T&DI 21.2-08 Automated People Mover
     Structures                                                          Standards—Part 2
ASCE/EWRI 2-06 Measurement of Oxygen Transfer                       ANSI/ASCE/T&DI 21.3-08 Automated People Mover
     in Clean Water                                                      Standards—Part 3
ANSI/ASCE 3-91 Standard for the Structural Design                   ANSI/ASCE/T&DI 21.4-08 Automated People Mover
     of Composite Slabs and ANSI/ASCE 9-91                               Standards—Part 4
     Standard Practice for the Construction and                     SEI/ASCE 23-97 Specifi cation for Structural Steel
     Inspection of Composite Slabs                                       Beams with Web Openings
ASCE 4-98 Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related                        ASCE/SEI 24-05 Flood Resistant Design and
     Nuclear Structures                                                  Construction
Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures                   ASCE/SEI 25-06 Earthquake-Actuated Automatic Gas
     (ACI 530-02/ASCE 5-02/TMS 402-02) and                               Shutoff Devices
     Specifi cations for Masonry Structures (ACI                     ASCE 26-97 Standard Practice for Design of Buried
     530.1-02/ASCE 6-02/TMS 602-02)                                      Precast Concrete Box Sections
ASCE/SEI 7-10 Minimum Design Loads for                              ASCE 27-00 Standard Practice for Direct Design of
     Buildings and Other Structures                                      Precast Concrete Pipe for Jacking in Trenchless
SEI/ASCE 8-02 Standard Specifi cation for the Design                      Construction
     of Cold-Formed Stainless Steel Structural                      ASCE 28-00 Standard Practice for Direct Design of
     Members                                                             Precast Concrete Box Sections for Jacking in
ANSI/ASCE 9-91 listed with ASCE 3-91                                     Trenchless Construction
ASCE 10-97 Design of Latticed Steel Transmission                    ASCE/SEI/SFPE 29-05 Standard Calculation Methods
     Structures                                                          for Structural Fire Protection
SEI/ASCE 11-99 Guideline for Structural Condition                   SEI/ASCE 30-00 Guideline for Condition Assessment
     Assessment of Existing Buildings                                    of the Building Envelope
ASCE/EWRI 12-05 Guideline for the Design of                         SEI/ASCE 31-03 Seismic Evaluation of Existing
     Urban Subsurface Drainage                                           Buildings
ASCE/EWRI 13-05 Standard Guidelines for                             SEI/ASCE 32-01 Design and Construction of Frost-
     Installation of Urban Subsurface Drainage                           Protected Shallow Foundations
ASCE/EWRI 14-05 Standard Guidelines for                             EWRI/ASCE 33-01 Comprehensive Transboundary
     Operation and Maintenance of Urban Subsurface                       International Water Quality Management
     Drainage                                                            Agreement

                                                                                                                              iii
----------------------------------------
                                                           CONTENTS

Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        iii
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          v
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               vii
Dedication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      xiii

     1      General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     1
            1.1            Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    1
            1.2            Defi nitions and Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                1
                            1.2.1          Defi nitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1
                            1.1.2          Symbols and Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  2
            1.3            Basic Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               2
                            1.3.1          Strength and Stiffness  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              2
                                          1.3.1.1             Strength Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               3
                                          1.3.1.2             Allowable Stress Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     3
                                          1.3.1.3             Performance-Based Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        3
                            1.3.2          Serviceability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         3
                            1.3.3          Self-Straining Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              4
                            1.3.4          Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       4
                            1.3.5          Counteracting Structural Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     4
            1.4            General Structural Integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 4
                            1.4.1          Load Combinations of Integrity Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           4
                                          1.4.1.1             Strength Design Notional Load Combinations . . . . . . . .                                  4
                                          1.4.1.2             Allowable Stress Design Notional Load
                                                            Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              4
                            1.4.2          Load Path Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  4
                            1.4.3          Lateral Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         4
                            1.4.4          Connection to Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 4
                            1.4.5          Anchorage of Structural Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    5
                            1.4.6          Extraordinary Loads and Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       5
            1.5            Classifi cation of Buildings and Other Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             5
                            1.5.1          Risk Categorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              5
                            1.5.2          Multiple Risk Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 5
                            1.5.3          Toxic, Highly Toxic, and Explosive Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                5
            1.6            Additions and Alterations to Existing Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             6
            1.7            Load Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       6
            1.8            Consensus Standards and Other Referenced Documents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                        6

     2     Combinations of Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  7
            2.1           General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       7
            2.2           Symbols  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        7
            2.3           Combining Factored Loads Using Strength Design  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                     7
                            2.3.1         Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         7
                            2.3.2         Basic Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                7
                            2.3.3         Load Combinations Including Flood Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                7
                            2.3.4         Load Combinations Including Atmospheric Ice Loads . . . . . . . . . . . .                                       8
                            2.3.5         Load Combinations Including Self-Straining Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                    8
                            2.3.6         Load Combinations for Nonspecifi ed Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                8

                                                                                                                                                                     xv
----------------------
CONTENTS

                          2.4           Combining Nominal Loads Using Allowable Stress Design  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                          8
                                         2.4.1          Basic Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              8
                                         2.4.2          Load Combinations Including Flood Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              9
                                         2.4.3          Load Combinations Including Atmospheric Ice
                                                      Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       9
                                         2.4.4          Load Combinations Including Self-Straining Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                  9
                          2.5           Load Combinations for Extraordinary Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              9
                                         2.5.1          Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       9
                                         2.5.2          Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               9
                                                       2.5.2.1            Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        9
                                                       2.5.2.2            Residual Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             9
                                         2.5.3          Stability Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              9

                  3      Dead Loads, Soil Loads, and Hydrostatic Pressure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               11
                          3.1           Dead Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       11
                                         3.1.1          Defi nition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     11
                                         3.1.2          Weights of Materials and Constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         11
                                         3.1.3          Weight of Fixed Service Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        11
                          3.2           Soil Loads and Hydrostatic Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      11
                                         3.2.1          Lateral Pressures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         11
                                         3.2.2          Uplift on Floors and Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     12

                  4      Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      13
                          4.1           Defi nitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    13
                          4.2           Loads Not Specifi ed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            13
                          4.3           Uniformly Distributed Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     13
                                         4.3.1         Required Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               13
                                         4.3.2         Provision for Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              13
                                         4.3.3         Partial Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         13
                          4.4           Concentrated Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                13
                          4.5           Loads on Handrail, Guardrail, Grab Bar, Vehicle Barrier Systems,
                                       and Fixed Ladders  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            14
                                         4.5.1         Loads on Handrail and Guardrail Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             14
                                         4.5.2         Loads on Grab Bar Systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    14
                                         4.5.3         Loads on Vehicle Barrier Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      14
                                         4.5.4         Loads on Fixed Ladders  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 14
                          4.6           Impact Loads  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        14
                                         4.6.1         General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     14
                                         4.6.2         Elevators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     14
                                         4.6.3         Machinery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        14
                          4.7           Reduction in Live Loads  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               14
                                         4.7.1         General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     14
                                         4.7.2         Reduction in Uniform Live Loads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        15
                                         4.7.3         Heavy Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              15
                                         4.7.4         Passenger Vehicle Garages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  15
                                         4.7.5         Assembly Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           15
                                         4.7.6         Limitations on One-Way Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      15
                          4.8           Reduction in Roof Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   15
                                         4.8.1         General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     15
                                         4.8.2         Flat, Pitched, and Curved Roofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     15
                                         4.8.3         Special Purpose Roofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               16
                          4.9           Crane Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        16
                                         4.9.1         General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     16
                                         4.9.2         Maximum Wheel Load  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   16

xvi
----------------------------------
CONTENTS

                                          15.4.4       Fundamental Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  144
                                          15.4.5       Drift Limitations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  145
                                          15.4.6       Materials Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  145
                                          15.4.7       Defl ection Limits and Structure Separation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  145
                                          15.4.8       Site-Specifi c Response Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  145
                                          15.4.9       Anchors in Concrete or Masonry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  145
                                                          15.4.9.1       Anchors in Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  145
                                                          15.4.9.2       Anchors in Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  145
                                                          15.4.9.3       Post-Installed Anchors in Concrete and
                                                                        Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  145
                        15.5           Nonbuilding Structures Similar to Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  145
                                          15.5.1       General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  145
                                          15.5.2       Pipe Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  145
                                                          15.5.2.1       Design Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  145
                                          15.5.3       Steel Storage Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  146
                                                          15.5.3.1    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  146
                                                          15.5.3.2    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  146
                                                          15.5.3.3    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  146
                                                          15.5.3.4       Alternative  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  146
                                                          15.5.3.5       General Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  147
                                                          15.5.3.6       Operating Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  147
                                                          15.5.3.7       Vertical Distribution of Seismic Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  147
                                                          15.5.3.8       Seismic Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  147
                                          15.5.4       Electrical Power Generating Facilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  147
                                                          15.5.4.1       General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  147
                                                          15.5.4.2       Design Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  147
                                          15.5.5       Structural Towers for Tanks and Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  147
                                                          15.5.5.1       General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  147
                                          15.5.6       Piers and Wharves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  147
                                                          15.5.6.1       General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  147
                                                          15.5.6.2       Design Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  147
                        15.6           General Requirements for Nonbuilding Structures Not Similar to
                                      Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  148
                                          15.6.1       Earth-Retaining Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  148
                                          15.6.2       Stacks and Chimneys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  148
                                          15.6.3       Amusement Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  148
                                          15.6.4       Special Hydraulic Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  149
                                                          15.6.4.1       Design Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  149
                                          15.6.5       Secondary Containment Systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  149
                                                          15.6.5.1       Freeboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  149
                                          15.6.6       Telecommunication Towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  149
                        15.7           Tanks and Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  149
                                          15.7.1       General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  149
                                          15.7.2       Design Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  149
                                          15.7.3       Strength and Ductility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  150
                                          15.7.4       Flexibility of Piping Attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  150
                                          15.7.5       Anchorage  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  152
                                          15.7.6       Ground-Supported Storage Tanks for Liquids  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  152
                                                          15.7.6.1       General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  152
                                          15.7.7       Water Storage and Water Treatment Tanks and Vessels . . . . . . . . . . .  155
                                                          15.7.7.1       Welded Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  155
                                                          15.7.7.2       Bolted Steel  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  155
                                                          15.7.7.3       Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  155

xxvi
--------------------------
CONTENTS

                                         16.1.3       Ground Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  161
                                                         16.1.3.1       Two-Dimensional Analysis  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  161
                                                         16.1.3.2       Three-Dimensional Analysis  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  161
                                         16.1.4       Response Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  161
                                         16.1.5       Horizontal Shear Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  162
                       16.2            Nonlinear Response History Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  162
                                         16.2.1       Analysis Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  162
                                         16.2.2       Modeling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  162
                                         16.2.3       Ground Motion and Other Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  162
                                         16.2.4       Response Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  163
                                                         16.2.4.1       Member Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  163
                                                         16.2.4.2       Member Deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  163
                                                         16.2.4.3       Story Drift  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  163
                                         16.2.5       Design Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  163

                17      Seismic Design Requirements for Seismically Isolated Structures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  165
                       17.1            General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  165
                                         17.1.1       Variations in Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  165
                                         17.1.2       Defi nitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  165
                                         17.1.3       Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  165
                       17.2            General Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  167
                                         17.2.1       Importance Factor  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  167
                                         17.2.2       MCER Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters, SMS
                                                     and SM1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  167
                                         17.2.3       Confi guration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  167
                                         17.2.4       Isolation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  167
                                                         17.2.4.1       Environmental Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  167
                                                         17.2.4.2       Wind Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  167
                                                         17.2.4.3       Fire Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  167
                                                         17.2.4.4       Lateral Restoring Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  167
                                                         17.2.4.5       Displacement Restraint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  167
                                                         17.2.4.6       Vertical-Load Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  168
                                                         17.2.4.7       Overturning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  168
                                                         17.2.4.8       Inspection and Replacement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  168
                                                         17.2.4.9       Quality Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  168
                                         17.2.5       Structural System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  168
                                                         17.2.5.1       Horizontal Distribution of Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  168
                                                         17.2.5.2       Building Separations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  168
                                                         17.2.5.3       Nonbuilding Structures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  168
                                         17.2.6       Elements of Structures and Nonstructural Components . . . . . . . . . . .  168
                                                         17.2.6.1       Components at or above the Isolation
                                                                       Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  169
                                                         17.2.6.2       Components Crossing the Isolation
                                                                       Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  169
                                                         17.2.6.3       Components below the Isolation Interface  . . . . . . . . . . .  169
                       17.3            Ground Motion for Isolated Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  169
                                         17.3.1       Design Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  169
                                         17.3.2       Ground Motion Histories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  169
                       17.4            Analysis Procedure Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  169
                                         17.4.1       Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  169
                                         17.4.2       Dynamic Procedures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  169
                                                         17.4.2.1       Response-Spectrum Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  169
                                                         17.4.2.2       Response-History Procedure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  170

xxviii
------------------
                                                                                                            MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

for each beam, girder, or truss either directly to its                     the purposes of applying fl ood, wind, snow, earth-
supporting elements or to slabs designed to act as                         quake, and ice provisions. Each building or other
diaphragms. Where the connection is through a                              structure shall be assigned to the highest applicable
diaphragm, the member’s supporting element shall                           risk category or categories. Minimum design loads for
also be connected to the diaphragm. The connection                         structures shall incorporate the applicable importance
shall have the strength to resist a force of 5 percent of                  factors given in Table 1.5-2, as required by other
the unfactored dead load plus live load reaction                           sections of this Standard. Assignment of a building or
imposed by the supported member on the supporting                          other structure to multiple risk categories based on the
member.                                                                    type of load condition being evaluated (e.g., snow or
                                                                           seismic) shall be permitted.
1.4.5 Anchorage of Structural Walls                                             When the building code or other referenced
     Walls that provide vertical load bearing or lateral                   standard specifi es an Occupancy Category, the Risk
shear resistance for a portion of the structure shall be                   Category shall not be taken as lower than the Occu-
anchored to the roof and all fl oors and members that                       pancy Category specifi ed therein.
provide lateral support for the wall or that are
supported by the wall. The anchorage shall provide a                       1.5.2 Multiple Risk Categories
direct connection between the walls and the roof or                             Where buildings or other structures are divided
fl oor construction. The connections shall be capable                       into portions with independent structural systems, the
of resisting a strength level horizontal force perpen-                     classifi cation for each portion shall be permitted to be
dicular to the plane of the wall equal to 0.2 times the                    determined independently. Where building systems,
weight of the wall tributary to the connection, but not                    such as required egress, HVAC, or electrical power,
less than 5 psf (0.24 kN/m2).                                              for a portion with a higher risk category pass through

                                                                           or depend on other portions of the building or other
1.4.6 Extraordinary Loads and Events                                       structure having a lower risk category, those portions
     When considered, design for resistance to                             shall be assigned to the higher risk category.
extraordinary loads and events shall be in accordance
with the procedures of Section 2.5.                                        1.5.3 Toxic, Highly Toxic, and Explosive Substances
                                                                                Buildings and other structures containing toxic,
                                                                           highly toxic, or explosive substances are permitted to
1.5   CLASSIFICATION OF BUILDINGS AND                                      be classifi ed as Risk Category II structures if it can be
OTHER STRUCTURES                                                           demonstrated to the satisfaction of the authority
                                                                           having jurisdiction by a hazard assessment as part of
1.5.1 Risk Categorization                                                  an overall risk management plan (RMP) that a release
     Buildings and other structures shall be classifi ed,                   of the toxic, highly toxic, or explosive substances is
based on the risk to human life, health, and welfare                       not suffi cient to pose a threat to the public.
associated with their damage or failure by nature of                            To qualify for this reduced classifi cation, the
their occupancy or use, according to Table 1.5-1 for                       owner or operator of the buildings or other structures

    Table 1.5-2   Importance Factors by Risk Category of Buildings and Other Structures for Snow, Ice, and
                                                          Earthquake Loadsa

Risk Category               Snow Importance                  Ice Importance                Ice Importance               Seismic Importance
     from                        Factor,                   Factor—Thickness,                Factor—Wind,                       Factor,
  Table 1.5-1                       Is                              Ii                             Iw                            Ie

       I                           0.80                            0.80                          1.00                           1.00

       II                          1.00                            1.00                          1.00                           1.00

       III                         1.10                            1.25                          1.00                           1.25

      IV                           1.20                            1.25                          1.00                           1.50

aThe component importance factor, I , applicable to earthquake loads, is not included in this table because it is dependent on the importance of
                                   p

the individual component rather than that of the building as a whole, or its occupancy. Refer to Section 13.1.3.

                                                                                                                                           5
----------------------------
CHAPTER 1       GENERAL

containing the toxic, highly toxic, or explosive                  procedures for emergency response to releases that
substances shall have an RMP that incorporates three              have consequences beyond the property boundary of
elements as a minimum: a hazard assessment, a                     the facility. The emergency response plan shall
prevention program, and an emergency response plan.               address the potential that resources for response could
     As a minimum, the hazard assessment shall                    be compromised by the event that has caused the
include the preparation and reporting of worst-case               emergency.
release scenarios for each structure under consider-
ation, showing the potential effect on the public for
each. As a minimum, the worst-case event shall                    1.6   ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS TO
include the complete failure (instantaneous release of            EXISTING STRUCTURES
entire contents) of a vessel, piping system, or other
storage structure. A worst-case event includes (but is            When an existing building or other structure is
not limited to) a release during the design wind or               enlarged or otherwise altered, structural members
design seismic event. In this assessment, the evalua-             affected shall be strengthened if necessary so that the
tion of the effectiveness of subsequent measures for              factored loads defi ned in this document will be
accident mitigation shall be based on the assumption              supported without exceeding the specifi ed design
that the complete failure of the primary storage                  strength for the materials of construction. When using
structure has occurred. The offsite impact shall be               allowable stress design, strengthening is required when
defi ned in terms of population within the potentially             the stresses due to nominal loads exceed the specifi ed
affected area. To qualify for the reduced classifi cation,         allowable stresses for the materials of construction.
the hazard assessment shall demonstrate that a release
of the toxic, highly toxic, or explosive substances
from a worst-case event does not pose a threat to the             1.7  LOAD TESTS
public outside the property boundary of the facility.
     As a minimum, the prevention program shall                   A load test of any construction shall be conducted
consist of the comprehensive elements of process                  when required by the authority having jurisdiction
safety management, which is based upon accident                   whenever there is reason to question its safety for the
prevention through the application of management                  intended use.
controls in the key areas of design, construction,
operation, and maintenance. Secondary containment
of the toxic, highly toxic, or explosive substances               1.8  CONSENSUS STANDARDS AND OTHER
(including, but not limited to, double wall tank, dike            REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
of suffi cient size to contain a spill, or other means to
contain a release of the toxic, highly toxic, or explo-           This section lists the consensus standards and other
sive substances within the property boundary of the               documents that are adopted by reference within this
facility and prevent release of harmful quantities of             chapter:
contaminants to the air, soil, ground water, or surface
water) are permitted to be used to mitigate the risk              OSHA
of release. Where secondary containment is provided,              Occupational Safety and Health Administration
it shall be designed for all environmental loads and              200 Constitution Avenue, NW
is not eligible for this reduced classifi cation. In               Washington, DC 20210
hurricane-prone regions, mandatory practices and
procedures that effectively diminish the effects of               29 CFR 1910.1200 Appendix A with Amendments as
wind on critical structural elements or that alterna-               of February 1, 2000.
tively protect against harmful releases during and after          Section 1.2
hurricanes are permitted to be used to mitigate the               OSHA Standards for General Industry, 29 CFR (Code
risk of release.                                                    of Federal Regulations) Part 1910.1200
     As a minimum, the emergency response plan                    Appendix A, United States Department of Labor,
shall address public notifi cation, emergency medical                Occupational Safety and Health Administration,
treatment for accidental exposure to humans, and                    Washington, DC, 2005

6
-------------------
Download the whole PDF by contact e-mail: steelpdf@gmail.com